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Medieval Europe (9th century to 11th century)

While the Church began to assert its power over Europe in the ninth century and the tenth century through monasties, the post Carolingian Europe elevated the dukes of Franconia (Conrad and Henry I) to become rulers. The new rulers, Otto I continued his conquer of the  of the small states which were made into duchies. The new rulers refused to relinquish power of the duchies.

Otto I who ruled from 936 to 973 was able to conquer the and subjugate the duchies in the east and defeat the Magyars of Hungary in 955and spread Christianity. He was made the emperor after his taking over of North-Central Italy. Otto III, his grandson was crowned in 996.

Europe, during this time was conquered and re-conquered by the numerous rulers. In the West, France was still under the Carolingian dynasty and was involved in internal fighting for duchies. In 987, Hugh Capet was declared as the nominal king.

Byzantium was under constant attack by the Arab invaders. However, they withstood the attacks. They propagated Orthodox Christianity in the kingdom by forming alliances with they neighbouring ones which also followed Christianity.  This form of Christianity was independent of the Papal State and was not sanctioned by them. The state managed all the church matters, appointments priests and making the rules.

In the ninth century, Byzantium fell in troubled times after the disunity of the Abbasid Islamic state. They wages wars against Bulgars under the rule of Basil II who ruled between 963 to 1025. Other wars which Byzantium fought in were their advancing into South Italy,  recovery of Crete and Cyprus from the Muslims and their progress into Anatolia.

In 1054, Byzantine and the Latin Europe split. Their cultures, religions and politics were also split by the Catholic and the Orthodox Churches. By this time, Byzantium had no defences and were open to attacks. This started the Turks who were on a rampage to conquer Europe.

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